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Publications

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DIW on 21.06.2017, 05:00 h
German Economy on Track: Editorial


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DIW on 21.06.2017, 05:00 h
The World Economy and the Euro Area: Despite Risks, Global Recovery Is Stabilizing: DIW Economic Outlook

Abstract: Global economic output is expected to grow by 3.7 percent this year, and with a slightly stronger dynamic in the coming year; both predictions match the figures proposed in DIW Berlin?s spring forecast, even though the year started off somewhat weaker than expected. But overall, economic recovery continues. Despite rising inflation rates, private consumption remains one of the main drivers in the developed countries, primarily due to the fact that more and more people are getting jobs. In the U.S. and Europe, corporate investment activity is once again picking up momentum. But although the elections in France and the Netherlands yielded [...] ( more )

DIW on 21.06.2017, 05:00 h
Uncertainty Remains One of the Biggest Impediments to Global Economic Development: Eight Questions for Ferdinand Fichtner


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DIW on 21.06.2017, 05:00 h
German Economy in Good Shape: DIW Economic Outlook

Abstract: The German economy is in the midst of a robust economic cycle: the number of employed persons has reached historic highs and is still increasing powerfully; private household income is on the rise; and the public coffers are overflowing. Inflation is rising only gradually, partly because capacities are not overburdened. The mood is bright among consumers and firms alike, with economic development distributed across the board: the service sector is benefiting from consumers? more liberal spending habits, while industry is profiting from the robust exports. Yet uncertainties remain high? and this is also why companies continue to hold back [...] ( more )

DIW on 19.06.2017, 10:00 h
Monetary Policy Implications of Financial Innovation: In-Depth Analysis


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DIW on 19.06.2017, 05:00 h
Health Effects of Instruction Intensity: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in German High-Schools

Abstract: A large literature aims to establish a causal link between education and health using changes in compulsory schooling laws. It is however unclear how well more education is operationalized by marginal increases in school years. We shed a new light on this discussion by analyzing the health effects of a reform in Germany where total years of schooling for students in the academic track were reduced from nine to eight while keeping cumulative teaching hours constant by increasing instruction intensity. ŒThe sequential introduction of the reform allows us to implement a triple difference-in-differences estimation strategy with data from the [...] ( more )

DIW on 19.06.2017, 04:00 h
Terminal Decline in Well-Being: The Role of Multi-Indicator Constellations of Physical Health and Psychosocial Correlates

Abstract: Well-being is often relatively stable across adulthood and old age, but typically exhibits pronounced deteriorations and vast individual differences in the terminal phase of life. However, the factors contributing to these differences are not well understood. Using up to 25-year annual longitudinal data obtained from 4,404 now-deceased participants of the nationwide German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP; age at death: M = 73.2 years; SD = 14.3 years; 52% women), we explored the role of multi-indicator constellations of socio-demographic variables, physical health and burden factors, and psychosocial characteristics. Expanding earlier [...] ( more )

DIW on 16.06.2017, 11:00 h
Is Market Fear Persistent? A Long-Memory Analysis

Abstract: This paper investigates the degree of persistence of market fear. Specifically, two different long-memory approaches (R/S analysis with the Hurst exponent method and fractional integration) are used to analyse persistence of the VIX index over the sample period 2004-2016, as well as some sub-periods (pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis). The findings indicate that its properties change over time: in normal periods it exhibits antipersistence (there is a negative correlation between its past and future values), whilst during crisis period the level of persistence is increasing. These results can be informative about the nature of financial [...] ( more )

DIW on 16.06.2017, 11:00 h
Pension Incentives and Early Retirement

Abstract: In this paper we exploit a cohort-specific pension reform to estimate the labour market effects of changes in the financial incentives to retire. In particular, we analyse the effects of the introduction of cohort-specific deductions for early retirement on female retirement, employment and unemployment. For the empirical analysis we use high-quality administrative data from the German pension insurance. We present evidence for sizeable labour market effects. In addition to direct effects on women older than 60 we find important anticipation effects before reaching the pension eligibility age. Overall we document that the pension reform [...] ( more )

DIW on 14.06.2017, 05:00 h
The Stratifying Role of Job Level for Sickness Absence and the Moderating Role of Gender and Occupational Gender Composition

Abstract: The study investigates whether sickness absence is stratified by job level - understood as the authority and autonomy a worker holds ? beyond the association with education, income, and occupation. A second objective is to establish the moderating role of gender and occupational gender composition on this stratification of sickness absence. Four competing hypotheses are developed that predict different patterns of moderation. Associations between job level and sickness absence are estimated for men and women in three groups of differing occupational gender composition, using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP). For the [...] ( more )

DIW on 14.06.2017, 04:00 h
Getting Together: Social Contact Frequency across the Life Span

Abstract: Frequent social interactions are strongly linked to positive affect, longevity, and good health. Although there has been extensive research on changes in the size of social networks over time, little attention has been given to the development of contact frequency across the life span. In this cohort-sequential longitudinal study, we examined intraindividual changes in the frequency of social contact with family and nonfamily members, and potential moderators of these changes. The data come from the 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013 waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study (N = 36,716; age range: 17?85 years). Using latent growth [...] ( more )

DIW on 14.06.2017, 04:00 h
Crowding in Public Transport: Who Cares and Why?

Abstract: Crowding on public transport (PT) is a major issue for commuters around the world. Nevertheless, economists have rarely investigated the causes of crowding discomfort. Furthermore, most evidence on the costs of PT crowding is based on trade-offs between crowding, travel time and money. First, this paper assesses discomfort with PT crowding at various density levels across heterogeneous individuals using a different methodology. Based on a survey of 1000 Paris PT users, the negative relationship of in-vehicle density on reported satisfaction is similar to previous studies investigating PT crowding costs and stable across most individual [...] ( more )

DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2013 – Questionnaire for the SOEP Innovation Sample


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2015.1—BIOPAREN: Biography Information on the Parents


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2012 – Questionnaire for the SOEP Innovation Sample


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2015.1—PGEN: Person-related Status and Generated Variables


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2014 – Questionnaire for the SOEP Innovation Sample (Boost Sample)


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2013 – Questionnaire for the SOEP Innovation Sample (Boost Sample)


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2014 – Questionnaire for the SOEP Innovation Sample


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DIW on 13.06.2017, 02:00 h
SOEP-IS 2011 – Questionnaire for the SOEP Innovation Sample


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DIW on 08.06.2017, 12:00 h
Introducing Risk Adjustment and Free Health Plan Choice in Employer-Based Health Insurance: Evidence from Germany

Abstract: To equalize differences in health plan premiums due to differences in risk pools, the German legislature introduced a simple Risk Adjustment Scheme (RAS) based on age, gender and disability status in 1994. In addition, effective 1996, consumers gained the freedom to choose among hundreds of existing health plans, across employers and state-borders. This paper (a) estimates RAS pass-through rates on premiums, financial reserves, and expenditures and assesses the overall RAS impact on market price dispersion. Moreover, it (b) characterizes health plan switchers and investigates their annual and cumulative switching rates over time. Our main [...] ( more )

DIW on 08.06.2017, 11:00 h
Health and Weight

Abstract: Many studies have shown that obesity is a serious health problem for our society. Empirical analyses often neglect a number of methodological issues and relevant influences on health. This paper investigates empirically whether neglecting these items leads to systematically different estimates. Based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study derives the following results. (1) Many combinations of weight and height lead to the same health status. (2) The relationship between health and body mass index is nonlinear. (3) Underweight strengthens individual health and severe obesity has a clear negative impact on health status. [...] ( more )

DIW on 08.06.2017, 11:00 h
The Role of Works Councils for Severance Payments

Abstract: Using representative German employee data, we analyse the role of works councils for the incidence of severance payments subsequent to dismissals. While there is a positive relation with severance payments after those dismissals which stem from plant closings, the incidence of a works council is negatively associated with severance pay subsequent to individual layoffs. In both cases, we find a negative moderating effect of individuals? higher re-employment chances. We also explore gender differences and differences between the types of previously held jobs.
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DIW on 31.05.2017, 03:00 h
Many Women Just Don’t Feel Like Competing against Others: Seven Questions for Johanna Mollerstrom


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DIW on 31.05.2017, 03:00 h
The Gender Gap in Competitiveness: Women Shy away from Competing with Others, but Not from Competing with Themselves

Abstract: Women are less willing than men to compete against others. This gender gap can partially explain the differences between women?s and men?s education and career choices, and the labor market disparities that result. The experiments presented here show that even though women are less willing than men to compete against others, they are just as willing as men are to take on the challenge of improving themselves and competing against their own past performance. For organizations striving towards gender equality, this opens up new possibilities for institutionalizing competitive pressure.
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DIW on 29.05.2017, 03:00 h
From Gross to Net Wages in German Administrative Data Sets


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DIW on 24.05.2017, 03:00 h
Real Hourly Wages: Low-Paid Workers Are Not Being Left Behind: Eight Questions for Alexander Kritikos


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DIW on 24.05.2017, 03:00 h
Hourly Wages in Lower Deciles No Longer Lagging behind When It Comes to Wage Growth

Abstract: For many years, only better-paid workers benefited from Germany?s real wage increases. In contrast, dependent employees with lower hourly wages suffered substantial losses, while the low-wage sector expanded. Around 2010, these trends came to an end. Now all wage groups benefit from wage increases?even if those in the middle of the distribution lag somewhat behind. At the very least, this new pattern means that the gap between high and low wages is not getting wider. This development is kind of surprising, as the labor market is shifting to higher-skilled jobs. Workers with higher hourly wages are still doing relatively well when it [...] ( more )

DIW on 23.05.2017, 05:00 h
Not Just Any Child Care Center? Social and Ethnic Disparities in the Early Education Institutions with a Beneficial Learning Environment


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DIW on 23.05.2017, 03:00 h
Pricing and Capacity Provision in Electricity Markets: An Experimental Study

Abstract: The creation of adequate investment incentives has been of great concern in the restructuring of the electricity sector. However, to achieve this, regulators have applied different market designs across countries and regions. In this paper we employ laboratory methods to explore the relationship between market design, capacity provision and pricing in electricity markets. Subjects act as firms, choosing their generation capacity and competing in uniform price auction markets. We compare three regulatory designs: (1) a baseline price cap system that restricts scarcity rents, (2) a price spike regime that effectively lifts these restrictions, [...] ( more )

DIW on 22.05.2017, 11:00 h
SOEP-IS 2015—HGEN: Household-related Status and Generated Variables


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DIW on 22.05.2017, 11:00 h
SOEP-IS 2015—IDRM_ESM: Person-related DRM Data from Innovative ESM Module


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DIW on 22.05.2017, 11:00 h
SOEP-IS 2015—IDRM: Person-related Data from Innovative DRM Module


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DIW on 22.05.2017, 11:00 h
SOEP-IS 2015—HBRUTTO: Household-related Gross File


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DIW on 22.05.2017, 06:00 h
Effort-Reward Imbalance at Work and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: A Multi-Cohort Study of 90,164 Individuals

Abstract: Background: Epidemiologic evidence for work stress as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is mostly based on a single measure of stressful work known as job strain, a combination of high demands and low job control. We examined whether a complementary stress measure that assesses an imbalance between efforts spent at work and rewards received predicted coronary heart disease. Methods: This multi-cohort study (the 'IPD-Work' consortium) was based on harmonized individual-level data from 11 European prospective cohort studies. Stressful work in 90,164 men and women without coronary heart disease at baseline was assessed by validated [...] ( more )

DIW on 22.05.2017, 04:00 h
Zur Berechnung von Bruttostundenlöhnen - Verdienst(struktur)erhebung und Sozio-oekonomisches Panel im Vergleich

Abstract: The statutory minimum wage in Germany was set as hourly wage. Thus, valid information on gross hourly wages must be calculated from monthly wages and weekly working hours. This paper compares the German Socio-Economic Panel and the Structure of Earnings Survey. There exist conceptual differences regarding sampling and collection of data on employees in the household survey (SOEP) and on jobs in the mandatory survey (V(S)E.) Accordingly, weighting and definition of types of employment vary. This also accounts for central characteristics of units observed. Monthly wages, weekly working hours and gross hourly wages differ especially in the [...] ( more )

DIW on 22.05.2017, 04:00 h
She's Leaving Home: A Large Sample Investigation of the Empty Nest Syndrome

Abstract: This study considers life satisfaction in relation to the empty nest syndrome, which is a situation where there are feelings of loss or loneliness for mothers and/or fathers following the departure of the last child from the parental home. In particular, the investigation considers the significance of Identity Economics when applied to parents experiencing a reduction in well-being following an extended period of child-rearing. The origins of the empty nest syndrome are first considered briefly before conducting an economic analysis of life satisfaction using the German Socio-Economic Panel. Our particular focus is the change in the [...] ( more )

WZB on 01.12.2016, 03:10 h
Law, Labor, and Democracy

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