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Survey of Reading and Mathematics Comprehension: Development from Grades 4 to 6 in Berlin (ELEMENT)

Research Question

The longitudinal study ELEMENT aimed to investigate students' learning background and their learning progress in the transition period from primary to secondary education at Berlin's primary and middle schools and grammar schools grade 5-plus (the latter are comparatively rare in Berlin, where primary school normally covers grades 1-6, and grammar school starts from grade 7). It focused on student performance in German and mathematics, with supplementary tests in English at the third measuring time.

Test Language


Test Period

2003-2005: The study was designed with three measurement points from grade 4 to grade 6.

Test Area


Target Persons

Students in grades 4, 5 and 6 at primary schools and grammar schools in Berlin

Context Persons

Parents of the selected student

Population / Sample

Representative sample of primary schools and the full survey of grammar schools including grade 5 and 6 in Berlin

Sample Size

n= circa 5,000 target persons

Survey Procedure and Instruments

In addition to academic performance (German, mathematics, English), the tests also covered students' motivational and emotional attitudes with regard to school and classroom teaching. Furthermore, parents were asked to fill in questionnaires on their children's familial background and their own attitudes regarding education.

Link to the Detailed Description of the Study (only available in German)

Persistent Identifier

DOI: 10.5159/IQB_ELEMENT_v1

Data Accessible via Research Data Centre

To the Study Documentation at the FDZ at the IQB:

Information about the user conditions can be found here:

Documentation of Variables

The ELEMENT Handbook of Scales as PDF-file can be found here for download: (only available in German)


Monika Lacher
FDZ Secretary
Phone: +49 30 / 20 93 - 465 52
Email: fdz[at]

Selection of Publications using the Data

The ELEMENT Publications list as PDF-file can be found here for download:

Research Area(s)